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Useful Commands in Linux

When you install a Linux server or PC, you need to configure the system at first. Here is a collection of useful commands taking Ubuntu as example.

Common Commands

Change Directory (cd)

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cd /home/Qjbtiger/files # change directory to path
cd .\ # cd to current directory
cd ..\ # cd to parent directory
cd \ # cd to root directory
cd ~ # cd to current user's home directory
Usage
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cd: cd [-L|[-P [-e]] [-@]] [dir]
Change the shell working directory.

Change the current directory to DIR. The default DIR is the value of the
HOME shell variable.

The variable CDPATH defines the search path for the directory containing
DIR. Alternative directory names in CDPATH are separated by a colon (:).
A null directory name is the same as the current directory. If DIR begins
with a slash (/), then CDPATH is not used.

If the directory is not found, and the shell option `cdable_vars' is set,
the word is assumed to be a variable name. If that variable has a value,
its value is used for DIR.

Options:
-L force symbolic links to be followed: resolve symbolic
links in DIR after processing instances of `..'
-P use the physical directory structure without following
symbolic links: resolve symbolic links in DIR before
processing instances of `..'
-e if the -P option is supplied, and the current working
directory cannot be determined successfully, exit with
a non-zero status
-@ on systems that support it, present a file with extended
attributes as a directory containing the file attributes

The default is to follow symbolic links, as if `-L' were specified.
`..' is processed by removing the immediately previous pathname component
back to a slash or the beginning of DIR.

Exit Status:
Returns 0 if the directory is changed, and if $PWD is set successfully when
-P is used; non-zero otherwise.

List the Files(ls)

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ls /home/Qjbtiger/files # list all files in path '/home/Qjbtiger/files'
ls ./ # list all files in current path
ls # same as above
ls -l # list all files in details
ls -a # list all files including hidden files
Usage
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Usage: ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...
List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).
Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort is specified.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
-a, --all do not ignore entries starting with .
-A, --almost-all do not list implied . and ..
--author with -l, print the author of each file
-b, --escape print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters
--block-size=SIZE with -l, scale sizes by SIZE when printing them;
e.g., '--block-size=M'; see SIZE format below
-B, --ignore-backups do not list implied entries ending with ~
-c with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last
modification of file status information);
with -l: show ctime and sort by name;
otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first
-C list entries by columns
--color[=WHEN] colorize the output; WHEN can be 'always' (default
if omitted), 'auto', or 'never'; more info below
-d, --directory list directories themselves, not their contents
-D, --dired generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode
-f do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color
-F, --classify append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries
--file-type likewise, except do not append '*'
--format=WORD across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l,
single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C
--full-time like -l --time-style=full-iso
-g like -l, but do not list owner
--group-directories-first
group directories before files;
can be augmented with a --sort option, but any
use of --sort=none (-U) disables grouping
-G, --no-group in a long listing, don't print group names
-h, --human-readable with -l and -s, print sizes like 1K 234M 2G etc.
--si likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
-H, --dereference-command-line
follow symbolic links listed on the command line
--dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
follow each command line symbolic link
that points to a directory
--hide=PATTERN do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
(overridden by -a or -A)
--hyperlink[=WHEN] hyperlink file names; WHEN can be 'always'
(default if omitted), 'auto', or 'never'
--indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
none (default), slash (-p),
file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)
-i, --inode print the index number of each file
-I, --ignore=PATTERN do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
-k, --kibibytes default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage;
used only with -s and per directory totals
-l use a long listing format
-L, --dereference when showing file information for a symbolic
link, show information for the file the link
references rather than for the link itself
-m fill width with a comma separated list of entries
-n, --numeric-uid-gid like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs
-N, --literal print entry names without quoting
-o like -l, but do not list group information
-p, --indicator-style=slash
append / indicator to directories
-q, --hide-control-chars print ? instead of nongraphic characters
--show-control-chars show nongraphic characters as-is (the default,
unless program is 'ls' and output is a terminal)
-Q, --quote-name enclose entry names in double quotes
--quoting-style=WORD use quoting style WORD for entry names:
literal, locale, shell, shell-always,
shell-escape, shell-escape-always, c, escape
(overrides QUOTING_STYLE environment variable)
-r, --reverse reverse order while sorting
-R, --recursive list subdirectories recursively
-s, --size print the allocated size of each file, in blocks
-S sort by file size, largest first
--sort=WORD sort by WORD instead of name: none (-U), size (-S),
time (-t), version (-v), extension (-X)
--time=WORD with -l, show time as WORD instead of default
modification time: atime or access or use (-u);
ctime or status (-c); also use specified time
as sort key if --sort=time (newest first)
--time-style=TIME_STYLE time/date format with -l; see TIME_STYLE below
-t sort by modification time, newest first
-T, --tabsize=COLS assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
-u with -lt: sort by, and show, access time;
with -l: show access time and sort by name;
otherwise: sort by access time, newest first
-U do not sort; list entries in directory order
-v natural sort of (version) numbers within text
-w, --width=COLS set output width to COLS. 0 means no limit
-x list entries by lines instead of by columns
-X sort alphabetically by entry extension
-Z, --context print any security context of each file
-1 list one file per line. Avoid '\n' with -q or -b
--help display this help and exit
--version output version information and exit

The SIZE argument is an integer and optional unit (example: 10K is 10*1024).
Units are K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y (powers of 1024) or KB,MB,... (powers of 1000).

The TIME_STYLE argument can be full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, or +FORMAT.
FORMAT is interpreted like in date(1). If FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2,
then FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files.
TIME_STYLE prefixed with 'posix-' takes effect only outside the POSIX locale.
Also the TIME_STYLE environment variable sets the default style to use.

Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and
with --color=never. With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when
standard output is connected to a terminal. The LS_COLORS environment
variable can change the settings. Use the dircolors command to set it.

Exit status:
0 if OK,
1 if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),
2 if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

Make Directory (mkdir)

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mkdir /home/Qjbtiger/files/newDirectory # make directory named 'newDirectory' in path '/home/Qjbtiger/files'
mkdir ./newDirectory # make directory named 'newDirectory' in current path
mkdir newDirectory # same as above
Usage
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Usage: mkdir [OPTION]... DIRECTORY...
Create the DIRECTORY(ies), if they do not already exist.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
-m, --mode=MODE set file mode (as in chmod), not a=rwx - umask
-p, --parents no error if existing, make parent directories as needed
-v, --verbose print a message for each created directory
-Z set SELinux security context of each created directory
to the default type
--context[=CTX] like -Z, or if CTX is specified then set the SELinux
or SMACK security context to CTX
--help display this help and exit
--version output version information and exit

Delete Files or Directories(rm)

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rm /home/Qjbtiger/files/fileReadyToDelete.txt # delete the file named 'fileReadyToDelete' in path '/home/Qjbtiger/files'
rm ./fileReadyToDelete.txt # delete the file named 'fileReadyToDelete' in current path
rm ./* # delete all files in current path. Command 'rm' support for wildcard character
rm -r /home/Qjbtiger/files/DirectoryReadyToDelete # delete the directory named 'DirectoryReadyToDelete' in path '/home/Qjbtiger/files'. '-r' means deleting directories and their contents recursively
rm -rf /* # ready to run away~~
Usage
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Usage: rm [OPTION]... [FILE]...
Remove (unlink) the FILE(s).

-f, --force ignore nonexistent files and arguments, never prompt
-i prompt before every removal
-I prompt once before removing more than three files, or
when removing recursively; less intrusive than -i,
while still giving protection against most mistakes
--interactive[=WHEN] prompt according to WHEN: never, once (-I), or
always (-i); without WHEN, prompt always
--one-file-system when removing a hierarchy recursively, skip any
directory that is on a file system different from
that of the corresponding command line argument
--no-preserve-root do not treat '/' specially
--preserve-root[=all] do not remove '/' (default);
with 'all', reject any command line argument
on a separate device from its parent
-r, -R, --recursive remove directories and their contents recursively
-d, --dir remove empty directories
-v, --verbose explain what is being done
--help display this help and exit
--version output version information and exit

By default, rm does not remove directories. Use the --recursive (-r or -R)
option to remove each listed directory, too, along with all of its contents.

To remove a file whose name starts with a '-', for example '-foo',
use one of these commands:
rm -- -foo

rm ./-foo

Note that if you use rm to remove a file, it might be possible to recover
some of its contents, given sufficient expertise and/or time. For greater
assurance that the contents are truly unrecoverable, consider using shred.

Compression & Decompression

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tar -cf /home/Qjbtiger/tmp.tar /home/Qjbtiger/tmp.txt # create new archive (no compression) and '-f' is usually necessary
tar -zcf /home/Qjbtiger/tmp.tar.gz /home/Qjbtiger/tmp.txt # create new archive (with gzip compression)
tar -jcf /home/Qjbtiger/tmp.tar.bz2 /home/Qjbtiger/tmp.txt # create new archive (with bzip2 compression)
tar -xf /home/Qjbtiger/tmp.tar # extract the archive (no compression)
tar -zxf /home/Qjbtiger/tmp.tar.gz # extract the archive (with gzip compression)
tar -jxf /home/Qjbtiger/tmp.tar.bz2 # extract the archive (with bzip2 compression)
tar -zvxf /home/Qjbtiger/tmp.tar.gz # with verbose

zip /home/Qjbtiger/tmp.zip /home/Qjbtiger/tmp.txt # compress files
zip -r /home/Qjbtiger/tmp.zip /home/Qjbtiger/tmp # compress directory
unzip /home/Qjbtiger/tmp.zip # decompress the archive

Check ip Address (ifconfig)

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ifconfig

Show Network Status (netstat)

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netstat # show active connections
netstat -a # show all ports including Listened and not listened
netstat -at # show all port of tcp links
netstat -au # show all port of udp links
netstat -l # show all listened ports
netstat -s # show statustic information
netstat -p # show PID and process name
netstat -n # show ip adress instead of hosts/ports/users name

netstat -tulpn # usually use
Usage
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usage: netstat [-vWeenNcCF] [<Af>] -r         netstat {-V|--version|-h|--help}
netstat [-vWnNcaeol] [<Socket> ...]
netstat { [-vWeenNac] -i | [-cnNe] -M | -s [-6tuw] }

-r, --route display routing table
-i, --interfaces display interface table
-g, --groups display multicast group memberships
-s, --statistics display networking statistics (like SNMP)
-M, --masquerade display masqueraded connections

-v, --verbose be verbose
-W, --wide don't truncate IP addresses
-n, --numeric don't resolve names
--numeric-hosts don't resolve host names
--numeric-ports don't resolve port names
--numeric-users don't resolve user names
-N, --symbolic resolve hardware names
-e, --extend display other/more information
-p, --programs display PID/Program name for sockets
-o, --timers display timers
-c, --continuous continuous listing

-l, --listening display listening server sockets
-a, --all display all sockets (default: connected)
-F, --fib display Forwarding Information Base (default)
-C, --cache display routing cache instead of FIB
-Z, --context display SELinux security context for sockets

<Socket>={-t|--tcp} {-u|--udp} {-U|--udplite} {-S|--sctp} {-w|--raw}
{-x|--unix} --ax25 --ipx --netrom
<AF>=Use '-6|-4' or '-A <af>' or '--<af>'; default: inet
List of possible address families (which support routing):
inet (DARPA Internet) inet6 (IPv6) ax25 (AMPR AX.25)
netrom (AMPR NET/ROM) ipx (Novell IPX) ddp (Appletalk DDP)
x25 (CCITT X.25)

System Service (systemctl)

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systemctl start smbd # start service 'smbd'
systemctl stop smbd # stop service 'smbd'
systemctl restart smbd # restart service 'smbd'
systemctl reload smbd # reload config file of service 'smbd'
systemctl status smbd # start service 'smbd'
systemctl enable smbd # start service 'smbd' when starting up
systemctl disable smbd # don't start service 'smbd' when starting up
Usage
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systemctl [OPTIONS...] COMMAND ...

Query or send control commands to the system manager.

Unit Commands:
list-units [PATTERN...] List units currently in memory
list-sockets [PATTERN...] List socket units currently in memory,
ordered by address
list-timers [PATTERN...] List timer units currently in memory,
ordered by next elapse
start UNIT... Start (activate) one or more units
stop UNIT... Stop (deactivate) one or more units
reload UNIT... Reload one or more units
restart UNIT... Start or restart one or more units
try-restart UNIT... Restart one or more units if active
reload-or-restart UNIT... Reload one or more units if possible,
otherwise start or restart
try-reload-or-restart UNIT... If active, reload one or more units,
if supported, otherwise restart
isolate UNIT Start one unit and stop all others
kill UNIT... Send signal to processes of a unit
clean UNIT... Clean runtime, cache, state, logs or
configuration of unit
is-active PATTERN... Check whether units are active
is-failed PATTERN... Check whether units are failed
status [PATTERN...|PID...] Show runtime status of one or more units
show [PATTERN...|JOB...] Show properties of one or more
units/jobs or the manager
cat PATTERN... Show files and drop-ins of specified units
set-property UNIT PROPERTY=VALUE... Sets one or more properties of a unit
help PATTERN...|PID... Show manual for one or more units
reset-failed [PATTERN...] Reset failed state for all, one, or more
units
list-dependencies [UNIT...] Recursively show units which are required
or wanted by the units or by which those
units are required or wanted
Unit File Commands:
list-unit-files [PATTERN...] List installed unit files
enable [UNIT...|PATH...] Enable one or more unit files
disable UNIT... Disable one or more unit files
reenable UNIT... Reenable one or more unit files
preset UNIT... Enable/disable one or more unit files
based on preset configuration
preset-all Enable/disable all unit files based on
preset configuration
is-enabled UNIT... Check whether unit files are enabled
mask UNIT... Mask one or more units
unmask UNIT... Unmask one or more units
link PATH... Link one or more units files into
the search path
revert UNIT... Revert one or more unit files to vendor
version
add-wants TARGET UNIT... Add 'Wants' dependency for the target
on specified one or more units
add-requires TARGET UNIT... Add 'Requires' dependency for the target
on specified one or more units
edit UNIT... Edit one or more unit files
get-default Get the name of the default target
set-default TARGET Set the default target

Machine Commands:
list-machines [PATTERN...] List local containers and host

Job Commands:
list-jobs [PATTERN...] List jobs
cancel [JOB...] Cancel all, one, or more jobs

Environment Commands:
show-environment Dump environment
set-environment VARIABLE=VALUE... Set one or more environment variables
unset-environment VARIABLE... Unset one or more environment variables
import-environment [VARIABLE...] Import all or some environment variables

Manager State Commands:
daemon-reload Reload systemd manager configuration
daemon-reexec Reexecute systemd manager
log-level [LEVEL] Get/set logging threshold for manager
log-target [TARGET] Get/set logging target for manager
service-watchdogs [BOOL] Get/set service watchdog state

System Commands:
is-system-running Check whether system is fully running
default Enter system default mode
rescue Enter system rescue mode
emergency Enter system emergency mode
halt Shut down and halt the system
poweroff Shut down and power-off the system
reboot [ARG] Shut down and reboot the system
kexec Shut down and reboot the system with kexec
exit [EXIT_CODE] Request user instance or container exit
switch-root ROOT [INIT] Change to a different root file system
suspend Suspend the system
hibernate Hibernate the system
hybrid-sleep Hibernate and suspend the system
suspend-then-hibernate Suspend the system, wake after a period of
time, and hibernate
Options:
-h --help Show this help
--version Show package version
--system Connect to system manager
--user Connect to user service manager
-H --host=[USER@]HOST Operate on remote host
-M --machine=CONTAINER Operate on a local container
-t --type=TYPE List units of a particular type
--state=STATE List units with particular LOAD or SUB or ACTIVE state
--failed Shorcut for --state=failed
-p --property=NAME Show only properties by this name
-a --all Show all properties/all units currently in memory,
including dead/empty ones. To list all units installed
on the system, use 'list-unit-files' instead.
-l --full Don't ellipsize unit names on output
-r --recursive Show unit list of host and local containers
--reverse Show reverse dependencies with 'list-dependencies'
--with-dependencies Show unit dependencies with 'status', 'cat',
'list-units', and 'list-unit-files'.
--job-mode=MODE Specify how to deal with already queued jobs, when
queueing a new job
-T --show-transaction When enqueuing a unit job, show full transaction
--show-types When showing sockets, explicitly show their type
--value When showing properties, only print the value
-i --ignore-inhibitors When shutting down or sleeping, ignore inhibitors
--kill-who=WHO Whom to send signal to
-s --signal=SIGNAL Which signal to send
--what=RESOURCES Which types of resources to remove
--now Start or stop unit after enabling or disabling it
--dry-run Only print what would be done
Currently supported by verbs: halt, poweroff, reboot,
kexec, suspend, hibernate, suspend-then-hibernate,
hybrid-sleep, default, rescue, emergency, and exit.
-q --quiet Suppress output
--wait For (re)start, wait until service stopped again
For is-system-running, wait until startup is completed
--no-block Do not wait until operation finished
--no-wall Don't send wall message before halt/power-off/reboot
--no-reload Don't reload daemon after en-/dis-abling unit files
--no-legend Do not print a legend (column headers and hints)
--no-pager Do not pipe output into a pager
--no-ask-password Do not ask for system passwords
--global Enable/disable/mask unit files globally
--runtime Enable/disable/mask unit files temporarily until next
reboot
-f --force When enabling unit files, override existing symlinks
When shutting down, execute action immediately
--preset-mode= Apply only enable, only disable, or all presets
--root=PATH Enable/disable/mask unit files in the specified root
directory
-n --lines=INTEGER Number of journal entries to show
-o --output=STRING Change journal output mode (short, short-precise,
short-iso, short-iso-precise, short-full,
short-monotonic, short-unix,
verbose, export, json, json-pretty, json-sse, cat)
--firmware-setup Tell the firmware to show the setup menu on next boot
--boot-loader-menu=TIME
Boot into boot loader menu on next boot
--boot-loader-entry=NAME
Boot into a specific boot loader entry on next boot
--plain Print unit dependencies as a list instead of a tree

See the systemctl(1) man page for details.

User Management

Add (New) User

Make sure you do it by Root user or add sudo before the commands below.

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adduser newUserName
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adduser temp
Adding user `temp' ...
Adding new group `temp' (1001) ...
Adding new user `temp' (1001) with group `temp' ...
Creating home directory `/home/temp' ...
Copying files from `/etc/skel' ...
New password: # input password
Retype new password:
passwd: password updated successfully
Changing the user information for temp
Enter the new value, or press ENTER for the default
Full Name []: # input information or press 'Enter' to leave a blank
Room Number []:
Work Phone []:
Home Phone []:
Other []:
Is the information correct? [Y/n] Y # input 'Y'

Delete User

Make sure you do it by Root user or add sudo before the commands below.

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userdel deleteUseName # delete the user named 'deleteUseName' but its home directory won't be delete.
userdel -r deleteUserName # delete the user named 'deleteUseName' and its home directory will be delete as well.

Setting SSH Transport

Add Key

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# generate key
ssh-keygen # input command 1
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which the key is (/home/qjbtiger/.ssh/id_rsa): # just press 'Enter'
Created directory '/home/qjbtiger/.ssh'
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): # input passphrase or press 'Enter' to leave a blank
Enter same passphrase again: # same as above
Your identification has been saved in /home/qjbtiger/.ssh/id_rsa.
Your public key has been saved in /home/qjbtiger/.ssh/id_rsa.pub

# install public key
cd ~/.ssh # input command 2 & 3
cat id_rsa.pub >> authorized_keys

# optional step
chmod 600 authorized_keys
chmod 700 ~/.ssh

Make sure you do it by Root user or add sudo before the commands below.

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# setting ssh config file
vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config # input command 4

RSAAuthentication yes # enable RSA authentication
PubkeyAuthentication yes # allow public key authentication
PermitRootLogin yes # allow Root user log in
PasswordAuthentication yes # allow log in by password

# restart ssh service
service sshd restart # input command 5

Download the private key file ‘id_rsa’ to local PC. If you use PuTTY or some tools like this, you need to convert the file to new format by PuTTYGen which PuTTY can recognize.

Setting sudo Command

Make sure you do it by Root user or add sudo before the commands below.

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vi /etc/sudoers
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# User privilege specification
root ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL
qjbtiger ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL
#----Add the user here! The first ALL means all hosts. The second ALL means all users can be used to exxcute commands. The third ALL means all groups can be used to exxcute commands. The fourth ALL means ALL commands can be executed----#

# Allow members of group sudo to execute any command
%sudo ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL
#----Add the group here!----#

Setting SFTP (vsftpd)

First Setting

If necessary, it is recommanded to do it by Root user or add sudo before the commands below, unless only one local user uses it.

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# optional step
apt-get update
apt-get upgrade

# install vsftpd
apt-get install vsftpd # input command 1
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# config SFTP config file
vi /etc/vsftpd.conf # input command 2

anonymous_enable=NO # forbid anonymous user log in
local_enable=YES # IMPORTANT. allow loacl user log in
write_enable=YES # allow write (or delete) files


# chroot (optional)
chroot_local_user=YES # restrict local users to their home directories (Root directory is not allowed)
allow_writeable_chroot=YES # allow to write in root directory
chroot_list_enable=YES # users in files is forbidden to change Root directory
chroot_list_file=/etc/vsftpd/chroot_list # file path in '/etc/vsftpd/chroot_list'


# userlist (optional)
userlist_enable=YES
userlist_file=/etc/vsftpd/user_list # add users alled to log in path '/etc/vsftpd.user_list'
userlist_deny=NO

# optional
local_root=/home/$USER # the directory when user log in, default is '/home/$USER'
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# restart vsftpd service
service vsftpd restart # input command 3

Common Commands

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service vsftpd start # start
service vsftpd stop # stop
service vsftpd status # check status
service vsftpd restart # restart

Other

Remerber to allow port 20/21 and 30000:31000 when configuring firewall. If necessary, you can new a user specific to SFTP

Setting Samba Server (samba)

ATTENTION: The default port 139/445, which is used by smb service, is forbidden by broadband operator in China, and the clients of Windows is not support for changing ports of smb service. So it is recommanded to use it in LAN instead of public network.

Make sure you do it by Root user or add sudo before the commands below.

First Setting

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# optional step
apt-get update
apt-get upgrade

# install samba
apt-get install samba # input command 1
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# edit config file
vi /etc/samba/smb.conf # input command 2

# add those words at the end of config file
[share]
path = /home/qjbtiger
valid users = qjbtiger # the user name you allow
available = yes
browseable = yes
public = no # need password to log in
writable = yes
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# check config file is correct or not (optional)
testparm

# add share user
smbpasswd -a qjbtiger # input command 3
New SMB password: # input password
Retype new SMB password:
Added user qjbtiger.

# restart smb service
systemctl reload smbd nmbd # input command 4

Common Commands

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systemctl start smbd nmbd # start samba
systemctl stop smbd nmbd # stop samba
systemctl restart smbd nmbd # restart samba
systemctl reload smbd nmbd # reload config file

systemctl status smbd nmbd # check samba status
smbstatus # same as above

Other

Remerber to allow port 139/445 when configuring firewall. If necessary, you can new a user specific to samba.

Or,

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ufw allow 'Samba'

Setting Firewall (ufw)

Make sure you do it by Root user or add sudo before the commands below.

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ufw enable # start firewall
ufw disable # stop firewall
ufw reload # restart firewall
ufw status # check status
ufw allow 22 # allow port 22
ufw delete allow 22 # forbid port 22 (delete the rule above)
Usage
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Usage: ufw COMMAND

Commands:
enable enables the firewall
disable disables the firewall
default ARG set default policy
logging LEVEL set logging to LEVEL
allow ARGS add allow rule
deny ARGS add deny rule
reject ARGS add reject rule
limit ARGS add limit rule
delete RULE|NUM delete RULE
insert NUM RULE insert RULE at NUM
route RULE add route RULE
route delete RULE|NUM delete route RULE
route insert NUM RULE insert route RULE at NUM
reload reload firewall
reset reset firewall
status show firewall status
status numbered show firewall status as numbered list of RULES
status verbose show verbose firewall status
show ARG show firewall report
version display version information

Application profile commands:
app list list application profiles
app info PROFILE show information on PROFILE
app update PROFILE update PROFILE
app default ARG set default application policy
Thank you so much.